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25 July, 2017

Japan-India Nuclear Cooperation Agreement Comes into Force with Exchange of Diplomatic Notes in New Delhi

On July 20, Indian Foreign Secretary Subrahmanyam Jaishankar and Japanese Ambassador to India Kenji Hiramatsu exchanged diplomatic notes at India's Ministry of External Affairs in New Delhi after the two countries gave final approval to the Japan-India Agreement for Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, allowing the agreement to enter force. The two countries' governments had begun negotiations in 2010 toward the agreement's conclusion.

The agreement enables Japan to export nuclear technology, materials and equipment to India, which has not yet signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. At the same time, Japan—as the only country to have experienced a nuclear bombing—has a fundamental commitment to nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation, so the ensuring of effective measures to prevent India from further nuclear testing remains an issue.

A statement released on July 20 by the Indian Ministry of External Affairs declared that the agreement “will pave the way for enhanced cooperation in energy security and clean energy between the two countries.”

The agreement limits nuclear cooperation to peaceful uses, prohibiting India from using explosive nuclear devices. Japan and India confirmed in an annex to the agreement that Japan will cease nuclear cooperation with India if the latter resumes nuclear testing, which it halted in 1998.

The agreement was originally signed by both parties on November 11, 2016, during a visit by India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Japan. Both countries then completed their approval procedures.

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